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Head of the project at the Advanced Research Foundation
Thank you so much for the seamless organization and invited speakers. We were pleased to listen to each other and were discussing collaborative plans (projects) all the Friday.
Associate professor at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute
You did a great job and it would definitely be continued by contacts between specialists.
From single-photon detectors to national quantum networks: quantum technologies development in Russia
In the next two years, scientists will develop a quantum elementary base in the form of a laboratory and research equipment, the capitalization of which will be $650 million per year. These predictions were announced at the Quantum Technology Conference on March 1 by Kirill Razgulyaev, scientific adviser at the ITMO Center for Scientific and Technological Foresight.
Last Thursday, engineers, developers and researchers gathered in Moscow to talk about the monetization of quantum technologies and clarify which stage of the second quantum revolution humanity and Russia in particular are going through, and how the world will change because of the new developments.
Quantum technology is a technology based on quantum physics. But it’s more than 70 years old (transistors, lasers and all semiconductor electronics made with them). So why is this technology talked about in the future tense? This was the question that the professor of the physics department of the University of Calgary, Alexander Lvovsky opened the conference with and then immediately clarified it.
Today we are talking about the technology of the second quantum revolution - the management of complex quantum systems at the level of their elementary components (quantum computer, quantum cryptography, quantum sensors).
Capitalization of the quantum technologies market
According to Lvovsky, four companies actively invest in the creation of a quantum computer: Google ($100 million), Intel ($50 million), IBM ($100 million), Alibaba Group ($150 million). The first three have created quantum computers (Google - 49 qubits, IBM - 16 qubits, Intel [Intel Core Quantum] - 50 qubits), but the expert said that none of them can be considered the winner of the quantum race.
"Modern qubits quickly lose coherence and cannot store information. The main task for today is to create at least one logical qubit, which consists of physical qubits and can store information for as long as needed through error correction," notes the expert.
The data on the general market of quantum technologies capitalization was also shared by the theoretical physicist Anton Kozubov of the St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO). He cited data from two analytical agencies:
• $845 million - volume of the quantum communications market in 2015, according to Global Industry Analysts;
• $26 billion - the quantum computing market in 2015-2020, Market Research Media prediction.
Commercialization of Quantum Technologies in Russia
It started in 2017, said Lvovsky. Russian Quantum Center with the support of Gazprombank, Vnesheconombank and Sberbank has developed a quantum blockchain, in which digital signatures are replaced by protocols of pairwise authentication based on quantum cryptography and the blocks are decentralized throughout the network.
However, Head of the Department of Quantum Optics and Telecommunications at the HSE Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (MIEM HSE), Professor Gregory Goltsman cited examples of commercialized development of Scontel, founded by him in 2004: a two-channel optical photon registration system and a terahertz radiation receiving system.
He noted that the work on quantum technologies in Russia began 17 years ago: "It is important not only to dream about the future, but also talk about how a small group at the Russian university MIEM has been working on their quantum technology since 2001."
Then they managed to create a superconducting single-photon detector SSPD. The new development of technology, according to Goltzman, began with the installation of SSPD on an optical waveguide and the production of quantum optical integrated circuits. The use of an optical waveguide increased the efficiency of recording photons to 91% of the total amount.
"This could be one of the steps to creating optical computers," he said.
Road Map for the Development of Quantum Technologies in Russia
Alexey Zablotskiy, head of the information research project at the Advanced Research Foundation, presented a plan for the development of quantum information processing technologies in the Russian Federation, according to which the planning horizon is set for 2030. It highlights these key areas:
Quantum calculations and quantum modeling.
Quantum communications and quantum cryptography.
Quantum frequency standards.
In addition, within the framework of the Digital Economy of the Russian Federation program, which envisages the development of quantum technologies in particular, with the financing of Rosatom, Advanced Research Foundation and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, created a pilot project (code name Liman, 2016-2020) on the development of superconductor qubits technologies has been launched.
Zablotskiy also spoke about the new development of a long distance encoder at 10 Gb/s. with a quantum channel corresponding to the time requirements for quantum cryptographic information protection facility systems for commercial secrets, approved by the FSB of the Russian Federation in June 2017.
Quantum Communication Technologies
More success is achieved in this area than in the invention of a universal quantum computer. Alexander Lvovsky said that today there are three options for implementing quantum communication:
in fiber optics - servers are connected by existing communication channels;
in open space - for the equipment of mobile operators;
in satellite communications - the exchange of quantum encryption key with a terrestrial station and an orbiting satellite.
From the presentation of Kirill Razgulyaev it became clear that the undisputed leader in this area is China. The country has a Beijing-Shanghai network with a length of 2000 km with 32 nodes. And thanks to the quantum satellite station, the Beijing-Vienna network was created.
As for Russia, Anton Kozubov shared the systems of quantum communication. The University of ITMO created a protected optical router SCWQC for simulated radiation with quantum key distribution on the side frequencies. It was implemented in St. Petersburg (the quantum network of the ITMO University), Kazan (collaboration with the telecom operator) and Samara (collaboration with the IT infrastructure).
National Quantum Network
In addition to local quantum networks, Russia is working on creating a national quantum network. The commercial director of JSC SMARTS Igor Nalivayko told about two projects of the company that will form the basis of a global one - construction of the national quantum network, an integral part of the Eurasian quantum path:
Creation of road telecommunication networks project, providing for the laying of long distance fiber-optic communication lines into the roadside of about 150 thousand km in the territory of 85 subjects of the Russian Federation.
Creation of a control system for geographically distributed data centers project, which will provide control over access to information channels, which will increase the level of information security and solve import substitution tasks.
Visitors of the Quantum Technology Conference also learned about other areas of quantum technologies that can be monetized. For example, about quantum emulators for understanding the physics of materials or about quantum sensors that can fully understand biological processes.
And the conclusion to which all forum visitors came to, can be wrapped up in a quote from Alexander Lvovsky’s report: "The changes in our life, to which the development of quantum technologies will lead, are comparable to those that semiconductor electronics caused in the second half of the 20th century."
Organizer of the event Smile-Expo is grateful to the Nauka TV channel, the publications Russkaya Planeta, Nauka i Zhizn and other media partners of the conference for the information support.